Aeskulap-Stab
Introduction
Resolution and 
 focal depth
Principles of 
 luminance contrast
Modification of 
 lenses
Mirror objectives
Illuminating  
 apparatus
Material and  
 methods
Results
Further technical 
 developements
Discussion
Summary
Links
Contact
References
Image gallery
Image gallery

This image gallery shows several examples for lumiannce contrast in various specimens. The images are taken in luminance dark field, luminance phase contrast and luminance interference contrast, in bulb, halogen and flash light. Some specimens are also taken in conventional illumination techniques (dark field or positive phase contrast) so that the effects of these various illumination modes can be compared with each other.

Moreover, the effects of color double contrast and use of polarized light in luminance contrast are demonstrated.

The author thanks Prof. Dr. K. Hausmann and Dr. R. Radek, Free University of Berlin, for pure cultures of protozoas, Prof. Dr. G. Unden, University of Mainz, for pure cultures of bacteria and Timm Piper for some images of insects taken in luminance contrast.

Native bacteria (E. coli), thin-layer preparation, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance dark field

Native bacteria (E. coli), thin-layer preparation, objective Pl Apo iris oil 100 x, ocular 12,5 x
conventional dark field

Native bacteria (E. coli), thin-layer preparation, objective Pl Apo Phaco oil 100 x, ocular 12,5 x
conventional phase contrast

Dental bacillus, thin-layer preparation, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance dark field

Dental bacillus, thin-layer preparation, objective Pl Apo iris oil 100 x, ocular 12,5 x
conventional dark field

Dental bacillus, thin-layer preparation, objective Pl Apo Phaco oil 100 x, ocular 12,5 x
conventional phase contrast

Dental bacillus, thin-layer preparation, modified objective 45 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance dark field

Dental bacillus, thin-layer preparation, modified objective 45 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance phase contrast

Dental bacillus, thin-layer preparation, modified objective 45 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance phase contrast, detail image, marginal line breadth of the bacteria wall: ca. 0.20 µm

Native epithelial cell, mirror objective WI 125 x, Ocular 6 x
luminance interference contrast

Native epithelial cell, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x
luminance phase contrast (aperture diaphragm moderately closed, bright background)

Native epithelial cell, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x
luminance phase contrast (aperture diaphragm more narrowly closed, dark background)

Native epithelial cell, thin-layer preparation, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x
luminance dark field (aperture diaphragm maximum closed, black background)

Native epithelial cell, thin-layer preparation, mirrror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x
luminance dark field, cell membrane with sessile bacteria

Native epithelial cell, thin-layer preparation, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x
luminance phase contrast, adjusted for high contrast intensity, nucelus, pores in the nuclear menbrane 

Native epithelial cell, thin-layer preparation, modified objective iris oil 100 x, ocular 6 x,
luminance dark field, fine villous structures on the cell membrane

Native epithelial cell, thin-layer preparation, modified objective iris oil 100 x, ocular 6 x,
luminance dark field, detail image 

Conglomerate of bacteria in a water sample, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance dark field

Small native ameba, ectoplasmatic vacuoles with food particle, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x
luminance interference contrast

Small native ameba, ectoplasmatic vacuole with food particle, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 12,5 x
luminance dark field

Native flagellates near the marginal zone of a small aerocyst, thin-layer preparation,
mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular  6 x, luminance dark field

Native flagellate with ejectiosomes (chilomonas), thin-layer preparation
mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 12,5 x, luminance dark field

Native flagellate (chlorogonium), thin-layer preparation,
mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 12,5 x, luminance dark field

Native flagellate with photoreceptors (euglena), thin-layer preparation,
mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 6 x, luminance dark field

 

Native green flagellate, thin-layer preparation, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 8 x, 
luminance dark field

Native green flagellate, thin-layer preparation, mirror objective WI 125 x, ocular 8 x
luminance dark field, several perforations in the cell membrane (see arrows)

Detail image, perforations marked by arrow "a"

Detail image, perforations marked by arrow "b"

Head of a gnat, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x, luminance dark field
(photograph taken by Timm Piper)

Corpus and leg of a gnat, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x 
luminance dark field with two-colors double contrast
(photograph taken by Timm Piper)

Caudal corpus and leg of a gnat, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x
luminance dark field with two-colors double contrast
(photograph taken by Timm Piper)

Jaw of a dragonfly larva, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x, luminance dark field, polarized light
(photograph taken by Timm Piper)

Jaw of a dragonfly larva, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x, 
luminance dark field with two-colors double contrast
(photograph taken by Timm Piper)

Jaw of a dragonfly larva, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x
luminance dark field, polarized light

Jaw of a dragonfly larva, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x 
luminance interference contrast, polarized light

Stomach of a cricket, historic preparation, 18 th century, modified objective 10 x, ocular 5 x
luminance dark field

Sodium-chloride, thin-layer crystallization, mirror objective 40 x, ocular 8 x
luminance phase contrast in two-colors double contrast

Sodium-chloride crystallization, mirror objective 40 x, ocular 8 x
luminance dark field

Sodium-chloride crystallization, mirror objective 40 x, ocular 8 x
luminance interference contrast

[Introduction]
[Resolution and focal depth]
[Principles of luminance contrast]
[Modification of lenses]
[Mirror objectives]
[Illuminating apparatus]
[Material and methods]
[Results]
[Further technical developements]
[Discussion]
[Summary]
[Links]
[Contact]
[References]
[Image gallery]